Anomalous heating in an electric arc. In previous experiments the subjects were shown the unusual effects that occur when rather short pulses. This experience will differ in that it will be investigated some phenomena that are not directly related to their duration, but without which it is difficult to obtain the conditions for the manifestation of the desired effect. The speech will be about the anomalous heating in the electric arc created by the pulse generator, high voltage pulse transformer and a special discharger. Moreover, to achieve the correct combination of these three components. . Schematic diagram of the experiment is presented in figure , where GG1 is the generator of short pulses, which periodically connects a primary winding high voltage pulse transformer THV1 to the power source U1. Capacitor C1 smooths out these pulses on nutrition. The secondary winding THV1 is connected to the gap GP1 in the discharge gap which we need to get the required effect. . As GG1, the author used well-proven generator of short pulses with the following predefined values: SA1 — "1111" and the SA2 is "0000", and the transformer THV1 was applied like this. On the gap GP1 is necessary to elaborate. .
. To achieve the effect, you must comply with the main principle in the geometry of the arrester is a sharp cathode and a flat anode. As the cathode, the author used conventional medical syringe, and as the anode — metal bolt with a hat . The cathode is connected to conditional minus secondary winding of the transformer THV1, and the anode — to the second output. Interestingly, the rectifying diodes are not required and even, as it turned out, the diodes in this circuit to reduce the effect. And if you connect insights THV1 on the contrary, the effect will not be observed. . The author tested the different types of transformers: high voltage transformers line scan , transformers from various push-pollow and Velibekov as well, promising a miniature high-voltage transformer, but the effect was obtained only with the "high voltage pulse transformer", described in detail here. Apparently, to achieve the effect, the secondary winding must have a reasonably small capacity. This is evidenced by the oscilloscope, which shows a periodic emission with a duration of 20 NS , the appearance of which will be difficult when a large capacitance of the secondary. We can safely assume that these emissions are the basis of an abnormal current and heat in the arc. . The oscilloscope probe is near the arc, because all attempts to measure a voltage or current of the direct connection, even through the current transformer, completely disable the device. Measuring and photographing of the arc was conducted at a frequency of GG1 - 32.5 kHz and supply voltage of the U1 - 41 B. thus, the power consumption from the source was only 8 W of thermal energy from the burning of the arc should follow the order of 15-20 watts. . The official version  suggests that the glow around the arc occurs due to the ionized molecules in the air gap between the electrodes, which allows the plasma to heat up to temperatures in 5000-50000 K. And the ionization of molecules occurs due to the huge electric field in a very small area of the cathode . But in this version the arc has a uniform character throughout its length. In this experiment, we can observe in the arc of several irregular zones : area P — arc with a high temperature, ionising molecules around it air and having a white glow; area S — spark gap having a bluish glow. In the pictures presents all the above points except for the bluish color in the spark gap; due to the much exposure it can be clearly seen only when protective filters. . It is also important that according to official data, the arc may be produced when currents of more than 0.4 And . To check this, the open circuit between THV1 and GP1 were included incandescent bulb, targeted at 0.12 A. the Arc was burning, as before, the spiral light bulb barely glows, that can speak about passing in the secondary circuit current with average value less than 50 mA. From the foregoing it is obvious that here we are dealing with a new kind of arcs may intrinsically-arc discharge. .
. Interestingly, the cathode material at the arc, is not consumed. In any case, when a two-hour combustion at the stand of the author, the length of the rod cathode of steel has not changed. . In addition to the steel needle from the syringe, as the cathode, the author tested a graphite rod from an automatic pencil . In this case, the arc stability was significantly lower, but its brightness was very high . It is obvious that in the same way worked and the first carbon arc lamp . . Insights. Most interesting in this experiment, according to the author, is the appearance of abnormally short nanosecond electric emissions from the combustion of the arc. And they are not high-voltage pulses from the secondary winding THV1, because the duration of the latter is of order 400 NS, i.e. 20 times more. The emissions represent a new and independent phenomenon, apparently, provide all of the described anomalous phenomena. The author suggests that these emissions have a deeper structure, but their study requires a more high frequency oscillograph and spectrograph . . More efficient burning can be dostignuta due to the selection of materials of the cathode. Graphite rod showed an increase in these parameters, but the process when it was not stable. It is also clear that the efficiency of the entire installation can be increased also at the expense of selection of gas involved in the combustion of the arc. However, this will require the placement of a gap in the specialized flask. . Efficiency can be achieved through a specific sequence of pulses specified by the generator GG1 with two switches SA1 and SA2. Development of specialized transformer THV with a sufficiently small capacitance of the secondary winding, will also add the installation efficiency. . .
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