Transformer cross-longitudinal waves (TTLW)
This work is the development of ideas about the standing wave with an offset, as well as the development of better power generators working on this principle. This article presents a mathematical justification of this process, and here is one of the variants of receipt of such displacement by the conversion of transverse waves into longitudinal ones. Any, even a very short pulse, raspostranyatsya along a long line (DL) can be represented in the form of a standing wave with displacement, and hence the magnetic field, in its distribution along the conductor will be the same as figure 1 of this Chapter, which serves one of the variants of the generator operating on this principle. Its drawback — a fairly complex structure and relatively low efficiency in low and medium currents. Strong currents disproportionately increase the cost of such a device, in particular, its the pulse generator.
The solution may be fundamentally different design, which we will continue to call architecture. The need for the application of this term will become clear from the following drawings. And the problem we have is this: have to use diodes on the perpendicular segments DL, to simplify the structure and reduce the generator current pulses Gw to the average values. Partly this can be achieved if you learn how to remove energy with momentum moving at DL, with the help of her wound around a cylindrical coil L1 (Fig 1.2). The pulse generator poluchaetsya DL according to the scheme depicted in figure 1.1. Note that in this part of the transformer eat should be made with the longitudinal wave, which has set a remarkable property: it is the induced currents do not cause reverse action.
T1.1 and T1.2 — segments long lines which at one end is connected to the pulse generator, and the second — connected to each other via Zm; they are made of conductive material. Generator Gw sends FOR relatively short pulses, the length of which should correspond to the time of passage through it, or at least the rise time of these pulses should not exceed this interval. In the simplest case, Gw can consist of a high voltage source with a storage capacitor and a spark gap. Zm — matching load, is generally complex, private — can be an active resistance and even just cofferdam. Its objective is to minimize the effect of wave reflection from the end of the DL.
From this figure we can see that the magnetic lines of force, shown in blue and the resulting displacement of the impulse along the DL, and out of the conductor coil L1 at the same angle: α1 = α2. Using the left-hand rule  we can immediately say that in this case, the currents in different sections of this guide will be mutually compensated and electrical energy at terminals L1 (X1-X2), we get. It would seem that this topic can be closed, but in fact there is a solution!
The new architecture
Increase the radius of the coil L1 and move it to the center with respect to DL (T1.1 and T1.2). The thus obtained architecture we can see in figure 1.3, where immediately seen that the angles between the conductor and the magnetic lines coming out — ceased to be equal: α1 ≠ α2, and α1 < α2. Given that induced in the conductor EMF is proportional to the cosine of these angles, we can conclude that the prevalence of one of the directions. If the pulse generator Gw will always be of one polarity, the findings of L1 we get pulsed DC.
Below, in figures 2.1-2.6 are shown the others, in some cases, more sophisticated architectures, which achieved greater difference between the angles α1 and α2, and hence greater energy output coil L1. T1.3 in these figures is a cylindrical non-magnetic frame. In the next Chapter we will elaborate on this part of the TTLW transformer.
As we can see, dear readers, the architecture of the TTLW can be quite different, it is only important to observe the difference of angles between the entering and leaving of the conductor coil L1 a magnetic lines of force. And the greater the difference in these angles, the better. Also, you should not forget to check the power lines on the rule left hand — wave motion at DL should generate EMF in the conductor.
At the moment we decided only half of a task are left from the use of diodes on segments perpendicular to the long line (DL) and simplified the design. Next, we describe how to solve the second part of it, to add current to the system and perform all the conditions for combining transverse and longitudinal waves.