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Get slow magnetic waves
After the publication of the two previous subsections, readers had many questions about how to get an unusual with a classical standpoint, magnetic waves in an ordinary inductance coil. They have a unique property: at relatively low frequencies (kilohertz), with more or less constant distribution of the electric field in the coil there are several magnetic poles. As it turned out, their uniqueness does not end there. If the coil is split into two halves, one of which will be left and the second right-hand winding, regardless of their connection, magnetic waves still formed. However, depending on the connection, it will change the distribution of magnetic field (MP), which is best measured by the indicator proposed here in figure (3).
Coil studies consider this: on a frame with a diameter of 50mm and a length of 22cm winded wire insulation, the thickness of the copper strands which is 1.5 mm. the Frame is split roughly in half and one half is wound right-handed, the second left-hand winding (Fig. 1). They can be connected as a counter and sequentially, depending on what we are going to get different results (Fig. 2, 3). Inside the frame you want to insert the core from ferrite: here you can apply the rods from medium wave receivers, pigs on the power filters, rings, etc. Then all the same can be done without it, core only enhances the effect and allows a better indicator to react to it. I must say that in General, such a coil can have a different design, the number of turns and diameter, but for the manifestation of the desired effect are not possible in any ratio. We will focus on this in the next Chapter.
Исследуемая катушка индуктивности, состоящая из двух половинок c левой и правой намоткой
Fig.1. The investigated inductor L1, consisting of two parts: LL — left winding LR — right winding
Распределение пучностей продольной и поперечной составляющей МП в катушке при последовательном соединении обмоток
Fig.2. The distribution of the loops of the longitudinal and transverse component of the MP in the coil L1 in series connection of windings
Распределение пучностей продольной и поперечной составляющей МП в катушке при встречном соединении обмоток
Fig.3. The distribution of the loops of the longitudinal and transverse component of the MP in the coil L1 at the opposite connection of the windings
Stand for studies, you can take a classic: a generator of rectangular pulses and the key with the driver. We will rely on a well-proven scheme of the constructor, which will use the generator GG1 and driver key CM1. Designer block, so each item at any time to replace. So for example, instead of the GG1, you can use a stationary generator of pulses instead of CM1 — poluostrova or even poldomasovo scheme. But first we recommend to use this switch.
Принципиальная схема генератора импульсов GG1 на TL494
Fig.4. Schematic diagram of the pulse generator GG1
Принципиальная схема коммутатора импульсов CM1 на TC4420
Fig.5. Schematic diagram of the switch pulses CM1
Details for such schemes. DA1 chip for the pulse generator GG1 — TL494. The key driver for the switch CM1 — TC4420 or TC4452. The key itself is running on VT1 mosfet-MOSFET IRFP360 or IRFP460. You can also try other transistors, but then you have to choose the damping capacitor C2 (Fig. 6). Requirements for a simple mosfet: low on-resistance and maximum voltage for the closed channel, which must be greater than the power supply at least 10 times.
Подключение блоков конструктора к выводам катушки
Fig.6. Wiring blocks to terminals of the coil L1 (Fig. 2, 3)
Осцилограмма напряжения на стоке и тока в катушке при последовательном соединении обмоток
Fig.7. Voltage waveform at the drain VT1 and the current in L1 a series connection of windings
Осцилограмма напряжения на стоке и тока в катушке при встречном соединении обмоток
Fig.8. Voltage waveform at the drain VT1 and the current in L1 with opposite connection of the windings
Connection diagram of blocks presented in figure (6). It is to pay attention to additional capacitors: C1 resonance, C2 — extinguishing. Resonant condenser, together with the inductance and active resistance of the coil determines the operating frequency of the overall circuit. Please note that this is not a classic resonance, as evidenced by the oscillogram of the process in figures 7 and 8. In addition, such a resonance is not calculated according to the formula of Thompson. C1 need to calculate the voltage below 400V and it should have good frequency characteristics. Well capacitors MKP10 or similar — from induction cookers. C2 suppresses the possible self-excitation scheme, the causes of which are not yet understood.
The circuit after Assembly you need to connect the coil windings L1, as is shown in figure 2. Generator GG1 have to give rectangular pulses with a frequency of about 5-6 kHz and a duty cycle of 50%. Picking up this frequency on the oscilloscope it is necessary to achieve stable pulses at the drain of VT1 — such as in photo 7 (green graph). The amplitude of these pulses may be greater than the voltage of 8-9 times. Current transformer it is possible to additionally measure the current in the coil: it is presented on the yellow chart in this picture. Then you need an indicator (Fig. 3) to check the distribution of MP along the coil. It must be so, as shown in figure 2. By the way, the connection of the windings is equivalent to as if the whole coil was wound in one direction.
Another unique feature of the magnetic slow waves can be seen if you turn counter winding L1, as shown in figure 3. This changes the distribution of MP along the coil, but the field does not become smaller, although classical ideas in the counter is enabled windings must occur mutual compensation. Oscilogram of the process here also changes (Fig. 8), as the resonant frequency of the process. For the coil it may be 9-10kHz.
The conclusions of these studies is obvious. Slow magnetic waves with a brand new, poorly known type of resonance, which does not obey classical laws. For example, more detailed studies showed that the increase in capacitance C1 in 4 times leads to decrease the resonant frequency 1.4-1.5 times instead of two, which would correspond to the formula of Thompson. At this frequency, among other things, affects both the resistance of the coil and capacitance of the key, and voltage. Also, if the classical resonance to form the phase shift between current and voltage 90 degrees, what we did not here observed (Fig 7, 8). All this allows you to build power generators on entirely new principles.