This method can be called in different ways: dopolnuvanje energy of the electron, its release, and even the opening free energy of the electron. The point is that humanity still has not learned to use its full potential. But all we need to ensure energy independence is to look at old things and concepts in new ways. Next, we show this with examples and simple mathematical calculations. As always, try not to go far beyond high-school physics :)

The method consists in the redistribution of charges along a long line (DL) and eat them in the load at certain points in time. But if pereraspredelenie charge is due to the interference of standing waves is by its nature reactive, you eat is already in the active load. When a certain combination of standing waves increases an efficiency of the second kind \(\eta_{2}\), which leads to the energy gain \(K_{\eta2}\) of the entire device.

For understanding the method will start with simple puzzles. There are five identical capacitors of \(C1..C5\). Will give them a charge \(Q\) value of 5 units (for simplicity, while we use relative units). Since the same container, the charge is evenly distributed between them, and the voltage across each of them becomes equal to 1. Accordingly, the potential energy \(W\) of each capacitor will be equal to 0.5. This is depicted in the figure on the left.

Recall that the charge associated with the voltage so: \[ Q = C\,U,\] and the potential energy of the capacitor is according to the following formulas: \[ W = \frac {Q\,U} {2} = \frac {Q^{2}} {2\,C} = \frac {C\,U^{2}} {2}.\]

Redistribute the charge as follows: the upper capacitor \(C1\) will receive 3 units, \(C2\) — 2 units, and at the bottom it will be zero. Note that the number of electrons in the system remains the same, only changed their location as shown at the right. The total potential energy of the capacitors of \(W_{gen}\) in the first case — 2.5 units in the second — already 6.5 units. Due to the redistribution of the charge we received an increase of energy 2.6 times.

We immediately note that for such a redistribution of charge using a conventional circuit design may require energy exactly equal to the raise. Below will show you how to do it relatively inexpensively. In fact, this is the whole "trick" of this method.

The above model of the charge distribution is also interesting because we can use it similarly to a system of resonant circuits, or a long line (DL). While we consider FOR lossless, and thus can enter an equivalent circuit consisting only of capacitances and inductances. But we need the whole process fluctuations of DL, but only moments in which the entire charge is concentrated in containers, so we can further oprostiti its equivalent circuit. As is known [1], the total energy of the oscillatory circuit is equal to \[ W = \frac {Q_m^{2}} {2\,C}\] where: \(Q_m\) is the maximum value of the charge on the capacitor oscillating circuit.

Since we are interested in a snapshot of the processes in the system, then it is legitimate to apply an equivalent circuit of a long line, which is shown in Fig. For our tasks ahead this will be enough.

Now we can consider a long line of fairly simple mathematical tools. A special case is the Tesla Transformer (TT) [2], the mathematical model which we will later build than scattering all sorts of rumors about him "magic capabilities", and at the same time confirm some real guesswork.

\(f(x)\) | 1 | \(\sin(x)\) | \(\sin(x)^2\) | \(x\) | \(x^2\) | \(x^3\) |

\(K_{\eta2}\) | 1 | 1.2345 | 1.668 | 1.3333 | 1.8 | 2.286 |

In this work we do not consider possible additional increment of energy in the system due to the capture of electrons (and other particles) from the atmosphere or from the earth.

It goes without saying that when you increase the resonance frequency of the coil of the TT we proportionally increase and the power output. It will be limited only by circuitry of our device.

As shown by the formula (1.9) — we need maximum transfer charge from the inductor to the coil TT, not to transform one voltage to another, as happens in an ordinary transformer. Therefore, PVC winding connection between the inductor and the secondary coil of TT should be possible small.

Another tip is not associated with our calculations, but greatly affects the efficiency of the TT is the quality factor of the secondary coil. It is clear that it is necessary to wind a coil to a coil, and the Council — shakes with Litz wire — Litz wire, each vein which are isolated. The fact that at high frequencies the currents mostly on the surface of the conductor, therefore, the more area of its surface [4], the better. Litz wire increases the area several times.

Quality, in the broadest sense, is also associated and a combination of two resonances: LC and wave. In their intersection can be as close as possible to the coincidence of the above-described calculations with real data.

Methods of energy extraction from a long line — a separate topic for research. Therefore, we mention only some well-known approaches to this problem. The easiest way of removal is capacitive coupling between the DL and the metal mesh (foil, coil removal) which, through the key at certain points in time and removed the energy to the load. This method is shown in the layout. We must not forget that the mesh should be continuous, for example, in this simulation you need two grids — two half DL, and the load should turn on between them.

As the key can act as a discharger [5], and electronic circuit. The discharger has plus in its simplicity and operation in range of a sufficiently high voltage. Disadvantage — difficult adjustment and low stability. Electronic circuit runs with less voltage, but more stable and can carry the current in the load not only with a cutoff at some threshold voltage, but in strictly defined points in time. By the way, if the circuit operates with a voltage cut off, it must have a small hysteresis.

Another way is fairly well known is to eat 6-7 coils wound as well as the main TT; it is located in the center and coils around the circumference. Each coil contributes to the overall increase. The disadvantage of this method is the involvement of a fairly large space and the electric field throughout, so — quite a big loss.

All calculations given above were obtained for capacitances and voltages. But they can be transferred to inductances and currents — the result is the same. From this follows directly the second method of removal is the open circuit at the antinode of current in certain points in time, and passing it through the load. The moments of the circuit exactly the same as for tension [6].

Apparently, the ideal method of removal will be the synthesis of these two methods.

__The materials used__

- [1] Physics 11 class. §28 OF THE RESONANT CIRCUIT. THE TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY IN ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATION
- [2] Tesla Transformer
- [3] Fourier Series
- [4] the Skin effect
- [5] From the collection device CE Patrick Kelly Donald Smith
- [6] the Principle of operation and practical recommendations for the production of CE devices
- [7] Indicators of the standing wave in the coil inductance

Vyacheslav Gorchilin, 2015

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