Try to calculate what percentage of the electrons transforms its reactive energy into active in the circuit: power + incandescent lamp. For simplicity, let's imagine that we have a current permanent (for AC — will be similar calculations), the voltage on the lamp — 220 V, its power is 220 watts.

The number of electrons \(N\) are involved in the process is of the well-known formula: \[ N=\frac {It} {e} \] where: \(I\) is the current in the circuit, \(t\) — time of the process \(e\) is the elementary charge of the electron. Remembering the formula (2.4) from the previous section, and given that the power in the circuit is given by \[ P_{max}=\frac {W_{e}N} {t}, \] we find the power that we could obtain at maximum conversion of the energy of all involved in the process of the electrons: \[ P_{max}=\frac {m_{e}c^{2}} {2e}I = \frac {m_{e}c^{2}} {2e} \frac {U} {R}, \qquad (3.1) \] where: \(U\) is the voltage at the bulb, \(R\) is the resistance of the spiral. It is easy to calculate that for the given experiment parameters \(P_{max}\) is equal to **257 kW**! But in the proposed scheme, the light bulb gives only **220 watts**. It turns out that such a scheme is about only 1 electron of the thousands of his converts reactive energy in active!

**, efficiency of the second kind**and note that it depends

**only on the voltage**. The physical meaning of this formula is that to increase \(\eta_{2}\) have the same number of charges is relatively cost-free to give as much greater potential difference. Or on the contrary — for the same potential difference relative to no cost you need to get as many charges. And the better we adhere to this principle, the more the internal energy of the charge we will be able to extract. Therefore, the resulting parameter can be called a utilization ratio of a substance —

**KIV**.

The efficiency \(\eta_{2}\) can be derived for the mechanics, but since all mechanical interactions contain basically electrical in nature, the further we go the "electric way"

Familiar to us efficiency, which now we call the efficiency of the first kind, is, as the ratio of received power to spent. It is not directly related to the above, efficiency of the second kind, but still, under certain conditions, increasing \(\eta_{2}\) leads to an increase \(\eta_{1}\).

- A source of energy. Need to clearly imagine the additional (external or internal) energy source. For electric generators — a source of charges.
- Pump. How is the transfer or conversion of additional energy to the energy of the battery. Example.
- Battery. His task — to save a portion of transformed energy, and then give it to the load. It can be seen as a fulcrum between a source of additional energy and the generator output.
- If all three signs are obtained, it remains to perform the last paragraph: it is necessary that the energy produced in the battery (see paragraph 3) for the same period was more than required for the generator to create this process.

__The materials used__

- Electrostatic machine
- The classical electron radius
- I. Misuchenko. The last mystery of God. Formula 5.3 and 5.11
- Generator TS-TK. Tungus
- M. D. Karasev. Some General properties of nonlinear reactive elements
- New Energy News, Aug 1994: "Solid State Space-Energy Generator" by Stanislav and Konstantin Avramenko
- The Russian patent: PCT/GB93/00960, May 10th, 1993 by Stanislav and Konstantin Avramenko
- Donald L. Smith. The most comprehensive guide
- Kasyanov G. T. electron Accelerator with closed cycle
- Spintronics