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Methods of energy conversion. The efficiency of the second kind

Try to calculate what percentage of the electrons transforms its reactive energy into active in the circuit: power + incandescent lamp. For simplicity, let's imagine that we have a current permanent (for AC — will be similar calculations), the voltage on the lamp — 220 V, its power is 220 watts.

The number of electrons N involved in the process is from the known formulas:

N=\frac {It} {e}
where: I is the circuit current, t — time of the process, e is the elementary charge of the electron. Remembering the formula (2.4) from the previous section, and given that the power in the circuit is given by
P_{max}=\frac {W_{e}N} {t},
find the power that we could obtain at maximum conversion of the energy of all involved in the process of electrons:
P_{max}=\frac {m_{e}c^{2}} {2e}I = \frac {m_{e}c^{2}} {2e} \frac {U} {R}, (3.1)
where: U — voltage on the bulb, R is the resistance of the spiral. It is easy to calculate that for the given experimental parameters P_{max} will be equal to 257 kW! But in the proposed scheme, the light bulb gives only 220 watts. It turns out that such a scheme is about only 1 electron of the thousands of his converts reactive energy in active!

Therefore, we can talk about a certain ratio of "free energy" — the conversion factor reactive energy charges in the active. Given that active power, given the light, is calculated by the following formula:

P=I^{2}R = \frac {U^{2}} {R},
get this ratio:
\eta_{2} = \frac {P} {P_{max}} = U \frac {2e} {m_{e}c^{2}}. (3.2)
Let's call it , efficiency of the second kind and note that it depends only on the voltage.

The result can be explained in another example. Take two lights: first — 220V 75W x, the second 12V x 4W. The current flowing through them will be approximately the same, hence the number of electrons per unit of time. From the same number of Pendants we have in the first case, 75W, and the second — only 4W.

Recall that the famous Tesla in his experiments worked with very high stress values is of the order of hundreds of thousands or even a million Volts!

Familiar to us efficiency, which now we call the efficiency of the first kind, is, as the ratio of received power to spent. It is not directly related to the above, efficiency of the second kind, but still, under certain conditions, increase \eta_{2} leads to an increase \eta_{1}.

In other words, it is about the process of cold nuclear fusion (has), but which, as the kernel acts as an electron from its internal energy. By analogy with gas, we can even give him a name — KHES. Every day, including light or other electric appliances, we are launching this process: some of the electrons transforms its reactive energy into active and part — and continues its way through the wires. Our task is to change this ratio to make better use of internal energy of the electron!

The generators of first and second kind

By analogy with the efficiency we can offer and classification of known types of generators. If the generator has a low \eta_{2}, \eta_{1} — up to 100%, then it is the generator of the first kind. These include almost all known electric machines: generators voltage and current, to conventional transformers. The generator of the second kind has increased the value of \eta_{2}, \eta_{1}, as a rule, more than 100%.

Generators of the second kind, in turn, are subdivided into generators with heat recovery charges, and with them the external source. For example, the so-called "eternal torch", the launch of which is carried out from a single touch of the batteries is a generator of the second kind with recuperation charges. In this device, once obtained from the battery charge circulates in a closed circuit. In each cycle only a portion of the electrons goes into active energy, the rest continue treatment. It is clear that someday the lantern will go out.

But the generator of the second kind with an external source of charges may work until the source runs out:) Such devices are described, for example, in the patents of Tesla and is a plate to collect the free atmospheric charges schemes and their subsequent conversion. Calculations show that if you can achieve great \eta_{2}, then this method can be extracted from the atmosphere of the order of 2 MW active power per square meter. Of course, you need to consider all column of the ionosphere in altitude. Here again we can recall Tesla and its high buildings in the form of towers, with an intimate capacity in the form of a torus on the top.

It is obvious that can be the generators of a mixed type. They are not all the charges received from the outside immediately transformed into active energy; part of it goes to support the work of the scheme. Contemporaries of Tesla — Kapanadze and others mainly use their devices is a mixed principle.

The generator of the second kind with an external source of charges

Remember the school experiment where the plates of the charged capacitor are bred to each other? The law of conservation of charge, in this case, the capacity decreases proportionally, and the voltage between the plates also increases proportionally. It would seem that we can get free energy because it is proportional to the square of the voltage, but mindful that pushing the plates spent the work directed against the forces of gravity.

You can go the other way and mechanically reduce the size of the plates. Since the reduction site in the transverse plane the Coulomb force does not resist, and the potential energy of the capacitor increases, then it is theoretically possible to choose the mode, when the energy from the voltage increase will be more mechanical costs.

All the same can be done with the help of elektorniki, however the schemes and the modes of its work must be not quite normal. The figure below shows the algorithm of operation of such a device. In fact, VA1 is well studied flyback Converter, but if it is used in a nonstandard manner [4], provided that U_2 > U_1, C_2 < C_1, from one of the same number of electrons, we can get on C_2 more potential energy than C_1. If you recall the formula (3.2), it becomes clear that in this way we just increment \eta_{2}.

Is it possible to zoom in \eta_{2} use the time? Time — a component of energy and mass, but his research is still at the initial level. The simplest example: place in a space where before there were no fields, charge and use the change in the electric field at any distance from him, for example, via a coil. After the appearance of the charge, the field begins to spread from him with a large, but still finite speed: just take charge in the moment when it reached the field coil, and the charge use, for example, for heating the bulb. But the field under the coil, will also produce the work, if the circuit of the coil also put the same light bulb.

Here is completely fair to say that mehancheskoe moving charge also require energy. Of course. But you can calculate that the moving mass, for example, electron, required by orders of magnitude smaller than that obtained from changes in the electric field. But then why not just spin electron, for example, in vacuum tube, and change the fields to do the coils, you say? If the fields of the charge coil and the mechanical spin of the electron will have time to interact with each other, we will get the usual mechanical interaction.

Of course, that such ways to increase \eta_{2} is not the only and not perfect. One of the most delicate approaches to the problem highlighted Karasev M. D. in 1959 [5], where it is proposed to apply a negative reactance for obtaining excess power. You can offer several methods to increase \eta_{2}: due to the redistribution of the magnetic fields along the inductor by redistribution of charge along the capacitors, tube, Lick and Jump-method. Interesting for research methods may be the offset of the standing wave , and a method proposed by Tesla due to the large duty cycle of the driving pulses. And in these works — RLC, RLC-2 is mathematically precisely the areas in which improvement \eta_{2} you should not look; they will help our readers to better use their time to search for free energy. In contrast, the use of back EMF in the coil with parametric core can give an increase in efficiency at certain conditions. The most common approach to finding the free energy in parametric circuits of the first order described here.

It seems to us, in an ideal generator should be operated capacitive and inductive principles of conversion at the same time, and the use of electronic gas or plasma makes it possible to achieve the maximum value of \eta_{2}.

The materials used

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© Vyacheslav Gorchilin, 2015
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