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Methods of energy conversion. The efficiency of the second kind

Try to calculate what percentage of the electrons transforms its reactive energy into active in the circuit: power + incandescent lamp. For simplicity, let's imagine that we have a current permanent (for AC — will be similar calculations), the voltage on the lamp — 220 V, its power is 220 watts.

The number of electrons N involved in the process is from the known formulas:

N=\frac {It} {e}
where: I is the circuit current, t — time of the process, e is the elementary charge of the electron. Remembering the formula (2.4) from the previous section, and given that the power in the circuit is given by
P_{max}=\frac {W_{e}N} {t},
find the power that we could obtain at maximum conversion of the energy of all involved in the process of electrons:
P_{max}=\frac {m_{e}c^{2}} {2e}I = \frac {m_{e}c^{2}} {2e} \frac {U} {R}, (3.1)
where: U — voltage on the bulb, R is the resistance of the spiral. It is easy to calculate that for the given experimental parameters P_{max} will be equal to 257 kW! But in the proposed scheme, the light bulb gives only 220 watts. It turns out that such a scheme is about only 1 electron of the thousands of his converts reactive energy in active!

Therefore, we can talk about a certain ratio of "free energy" — the conversion factor reactive energy charges in the active. Given that active power, given the light, is calculated by the following formula:
P=I^{2}R = \frac {U^{2}} {R},
get this ratio:
\eta_{2} = \frac {P} {P_{max}} = U \frac {2e} {m_{e}c^{2}}. (3.2)
Let's call it , efficiency of the second kind and note that it depends only on the voltage. The physical meaning of this formula is that to increase \eta_{2} have the same number of charges is relatively cost-free to give as much greater potential difference. Or on the contrary — for the same potential difference relative to no cost you need to get as many charges. And the better we adhere to this principle, the more the internal energy of the charge we will be able to extract. Therefore, the resulting parameter can be called a utilization ratio of a substance - KIV.
In other words, it is about the process of cold nuclear fusion (has), but which, as the kernel acts as an electron from its internal energy. By analogy with gas, we can even give him a name — KHES (cold electronic synthesis). Every day, including light or other electric appliances, we are launching this process: some of the electrons transforms its reactive energy into active and part — and continues its way through the wires. Our task is to change this ratio to make better use of internal energy of the electron!
The result can be explained by the following example. Take two lights: first — 220V 75W x, the second 12V x 4W. The current flowing through them will be approximately the same, hence the number of electrons per unit of time. From the same number of Pendants we have in the first case, 75W, and the second — only 4W.
The second example is sometimes enters into a stupor even the most famous professors. Consider the simplest of BTG, which offers us a classic radio. Принципиальная схема классического БТГ It includes an electrical circuit consisting of series-connected battery GB1 and EL1 filament lamp.
The principle of operation of such BTG is simple: negatively charged electrons, forming a current I1, we move from a negative pole of the battery go through the bulb and rush to the upside, forming a current I2. Because, according to classical laws, the currents I1 and I2 are equal, then the battery, discharging current I1 will again be recharged to the same value of current I2. If you imagine that the battery is idealized (lossless), then this scheme will work forever! In reality, as we know, this is not the case :)

The efficiency \eta_{2} can be derived for the mechanics, but since all mechanical interactions contain basically electrical in nature, the further we go the "electric way"

Familiar to us efficiency, which now we call the efficiency of the first kind, is, as the ratio of received power to spent. It is not directly related to the above, efficiency of the second kind, but still, under certain conditions, increase \eta_{2} leads to an increase \eta_{1}.

The generators of first and second kind

By analogy with the efficiency we can offer and classification of known types of generators. If the generator has a low \eta_{2}, \eta_{1} — up to 100%, then it is the generator of the first kind. These include almost all known electric machines: generators voltage and current, to conventional transformers. The generator of the second kind has increased the value of \eta_{2}, \eta_{1}, as a rule, more than 100%.

Generators of the second kind, in turn, are subdivided into generators with heat recovery charges, and with them the external source. For example, the so-called "eternal torch", the launch of which is carried out from a single touch of the batteries is a generator of the second kind with recuperation charges. In this device, once obtained from the battery charge circulates in a closed circuit. In each cycle only a portion of the electrons goes into active energy, the rest continue treatment. It is clear that someday the lantern will go out.

But the generator of the second kind with an external source of charges may work until the source runs out:) Such devices are described, for example, in the patents of Tesla and is a plate to collect the free atmospheric charges schemes and their subsequent conversion. Calculations show that if you can achieve great \eta_{2}, then this method can be extracted from the atmosphere of the order of 2 MW active power per square meter. Of course, you need to consider all column of the ionosphere in altitude. Here again we can recall Tesla and its high buildings in the form of towers, with an intimate capacity in the form of a torus on the top.

It is obvious that can be the generators of a mixed type. They are not all the charges received from the outside immediately transformed into active energy; part of it goes to support the work of the scheme. Contemporaries of Tesla — Kapanadze and others mainly use their devices is a mixed principle.

The generator of the second kind with an external source of charges

Remember the school experiment where the plates of the charged capacitor are bred to each other? The law of conservation of charge, in this case, the capacity decreases proportionally, and the voltage between the plates also increases proportionally. It would seem that we can get free energy because it is proportional to the square of the voltage, but mindful that pushing the plates spent the work directed against the forces of gravity.

You can go the other way and mechanically reduce the size of the plates. Since the reduction site in the transverse plane the Coulomb force does not resist, and the potential energy of the capacitor increases, then it is theoretically possible to choose the mode, when the energy from the voltage increase will be more mechanical costs.

Another way was open, apparently in the 18th century, but the property of science began relatively recently [10]. It is based on the separation of charges, making certain electron spins. This principle leads us to the simplest flowchart and device super generator (see figure).

Блок-схема безтопливного генератора на разделённых зарядах

The figure shows: E1 — power supply, CSU — block charge separation, C1 — cumulative capacity, CCU — unit conversion, Rn — resistive load. CSU is responsible for charge separation, which quickly charge the capacitor C1. This energy is converted by the unit CCU to the voltage and current required for the load Rn; it can be a transformer, a circuit breaker or a threshold device. I should add that the General case, instead of the capacitor may be applied to the battery.

Of course, that such ways to increase \eta_{2} is not the only one. A pioneer of such solutions can be considered to be Nikola Tesla, who over 100 years ago opened his radiant energy, which was later rediscovered Nikolaev in the form of the scalar magnetic field. One of the most delicate approaches to the problem highlighted Karasev M. D. in 1959 [5], where it is proposed to apply a negative reactance for obtaining excess power. Constantine and Stanislav Avramenko in 1993 and 1994 described the principle and patented the transfer of energy from one wire using prodolny waves [6,7]. The method of charge separation and the work of BTG has offered the inventor Donald Smith on behalf of the Tesla Symposium in 1996 [8]. In 2007, Kasyanov G. T. suggested another way of obtaining additional energy from the internal energy of charged particles [9].
You can offer several methods to increase \eta_{2}: due to the redistribution of the magnetic fields along the inductor by redistribution of charge along a system of capacitors and Jump-method. Interesting for research methods may be the offset of the standing wave , and a method proposed by Tesla due to the large duty cycle of the driving pulses. And in these works — RLC, RLC-2 is mathematically precisely the areas in which improvement \eta_{2} you should not look; they will help our readers to better use their time to search for free energy. In contrast, the use of back EMF in the coil with parametric core can give an increase in efficiency at certain conditions. The most common approach to finding the free energy in parametric circuits of the first order described here, and a special calculator that calculates the energy of such circuits are presented here.

It seems to us, in an ideal generator should be operated capacitive and inductive principles of conversion at the same time, and the use of electronic gas or plasma makes it possible to achieve the maximum value of \eta_{2}.

The materials used

© Vyacheslav Gorchilin, 2015
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