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The transformer of the traveling wave

The principle itself was born out of the acclaimed energy forums "wave resonance", which presents certain difficulties because of the simultaneous fulfillment of several conditions. For example, it is necessary to obtain an almost perfect reflection waves from both ends of the long line despite the fact that obtained between the peak current or voltage should move along this line with a given speed. In addition, simultaneously with the described process it is expected to obtain and LC resonance.

The proposed idea greatly simplifies the first and main task: preparation and movement of maximum current or voltage along a long line. In fact, we should redistribute the electrons of the secondary winding of the transformer along its length, shifting their maximum at one end of the secondary coil, getting there, thus, the antinode of the current (voltage).

In this series of notes the author would not raise issues of embodiment and the specific implementation of the device, and only shares with his readers ideas and possible ways of their implementation. However, some key points of the design will be described here.

The idea of the transformer

The current and voltage in the secondary winding of a conventional transformer can be described as a function of time:

I_{2},U_{2} \sim f(t)
The idea of producing transformer of the traveling wave (TTW) is preobrazovaniya a function of time in the space-time function:
I_{2},U_{2} \sim f(t, x),
where: x is the transverse coordinate transformer (magnetic field). This is similar to what comes with the TV accept TV signal expands in time and space. It also describes the function of a traveling wave, we must as close as possible, and ideally to and simultaneous with LC-resonance. Therefore, in real structures the primary winding of the transformer I .. VIII must be spaced from each other in space. Usually, a circuit diagram has nothing to do with the design of the device, but in this case it points to some design features of the TTW.

Схема подключения трансформатора бегущей волны
Note. The diagram method of excitation of the primary windings is not the only

The fundamental diagram shows the eight primary coils, but according to the calculations in the General case, there may be three or more. The General formula for finding the efficiency of TTW, or rather, increase the efficiency of the second kind \eta_{2}, so:

K = \frac {N^{2} + N + 2} {4N},
where: K — increase \eta_{2}, time; N — the number of primary windings (iterations). About \eta_{2} read here.

As can be seen from the formula, if the number of primary windings will be one or two, no increase \eta_{2} , we get. The efficiency of the installation can appear only starting from N = 3, but given the usual us efficiency, which in converters of this type can be reach 75%, in the real device the minimum number of primary coils should not be less than four.

The author proposes to start with N = 8, when the effect of TTW will be clearly manifested. This will need to reel and eight independent adjacent coils, which must then be inserted inside (or put on top) one secondary coil. This will be our TTW.

Generally speaking, the location and the winding coils TTW is another separate topic for development. The transformer design may be different: from flat to toroidal. Also, the secondary coil may use the properties of the core, is to wound and be placed as the ninth coil in series with the others.

To excite the primary winding will be single pulses successively in turn from I-th to the VIII-th (see diagram). On the secondary side we will have to obtain the maximum voltage that will depend on the duration of the pulses in the primary windings, their inductances, capacitance CP and the load resistance RL.

The excitation of the primary windings TTW

To excite the primary coil windings can be different ways, below we will give one of them. This scheme consists of three digital circuits high speed 74HCXX series, one voltage regulator and eight output transistors.

Схема возбуждения трансформатора бегущей волны

A list of circuit elements and their replacement (in parentheses):

  • DD1 — 74HC00 (1564ЛА3)
  • DD2 — 74HC393 (1564ИЕ19)
  • DD3 — 74HC164 (1564ИР8)
  • DA1 — LM7805 (КР142ЕН5А)
  • VD1..VD4 — 1N4148 (any low-power ultrafast)
  • SA1 — DS-04B, SWD1-4 (any DIP switch in 4 sections)
  • SA2 — DS-02B, SWD1-2 (any DIP switch on 2 sections)
  • VT1 VT8.. — 2SC4793 (high speed, with steep edges, low capacity, voltage collector-emitter voltage more than 200 V and gain current of at least 100).

The operation of the circuit

The shift register DD3 together in the generator DD1.1-DD1.2 forms a sequential series of pulses that control the output transistors VT1-VT8. Depending on the position of the switch SA1 is changing the pulse duration of the traveling wave, and its duty cycle. This is possible by using different combinations of the binary code output of the counter DD2, which through the diodes VD1-VD4 and the switch SA1 set these parameters. The two upper contact SA1 determines the duration of the pulse wave (from 1 to 3 clock periods), the lower two — interval between the pulses. If all the contacts of this switch are open, then after the last wave all the output transistors will turn off correctly.

The switch SA2 is changed the frequency range of oscillator.

Installation note

The diagram does not show the power pins of chips. They are standard: 7 — negative supply (common), 14 — plus. All the cons need to connect and be connected to GND and to Gnd of the stabilizer DA1. All positive findings — Out to his (or +5V).

Improved output stage

A more advanced scheme of the output stages of the buildup gathers on the drivers TC4420 output signal (DA1-DA8) and the keys on MOSFET-Ah (VT1-VT8). Transistors for keys should be chosen according to the following parameters: Схема подключения выходных каскадов rise time and decay of signal of not more than 100 ns, the output capacity — up to 600 pF, maximum voltage, drain-source more than 400 V. it is well such schemes are working MOSFET's IRFP460, IRFP840.

The power pins of driver successively are bridged by capacitances of 100 nF, and the supply input — additional — 10 UF.

The total power of the circuit will have to be reduced from 24 to 15..18V — according to the passport data of the driver TC4420.

Setting up the scheme with TTW

The circuit configuration is not required, and this is her joint work with TTW will require hard work and creativity. Here the author can only Express their views, and get all possible effects (including EC) will depend on you, dear readers.

The main feature of our transformer is to obtain a traveling wave along the secondary coil, and its speed should match the speed of propagation of electromagnetic wave (magnetic flux). This speed, and hence the switching frequency of the output transistors is at a maximum, if TTW will air. For such a transformer you need to use higher — speed circuits excitation is 100 MHz or more.

The core slows down this process, and the t to the permeability, the more. The speed of propagation of waves in ferrite 2000NM — 5-10 NS/cm, and iron is of the order of microseconds/cm, which is already suitable for the above scheme. With different types of core is possible to obtain new properties of the transformer.

The second feature, which opens up new possibilities, receiving LC resonance of the secondary winding TTW and CP. When all these conditions is possible to obtain interesting effects, unattainable in experiments with conventional transformer.

Vyacheslav Gorchilin, 2015
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