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Pulse technology. The energy of the bias current

Tesla now understood why his variable charges to the high frequency of the first experiments never showed such powerful manifestations. It is the intermittence, a fierce pulse discharge, gave it an unexpected "gas" component to move freely. Impulses, unidirectional impulses, were the only reason, which could be released this potential. Sinusoidal in this regard was absolutely useless.

The free energy secrets of cold electricity. Chapter 2. Rosetta stone

The pulse technology used in their devices is not only a great inventor of the early twentieth century, but his contemporaries: E. grey, P. Lindemann, D. Bedini, A. Hubbard, I. Aviso, and many other seekers of free energy. An excerpt from an article about the research of Tesla, could not be better preceded by this work in which we come to radiant energy from a scientific point of view, try to relate it to the no less "mysterious" bias currents, we derive the General engineering equation for approximate calculations of the potential energy and efficiency, suggest possible circuit topology for devices on this basis.
What do we know about the bias current? Quite a bit [1]. James Maxwell introduced him for symmetry in his famous equations, in addition to the current conduction. In Universities, this issue has received little attention, because research on this topic is almost there, so in electrical circuits, both DC believe like it's the same current, and do not bother much about their fundamental differences. There were very few attempts to experimentally get it fixed, but since no significant progress had been made, then this topic is not developed, despite the fact that indirectly the current to be detected by the same managed [2-4].
Ток смещения между пластинами конденсатора
Fig.1. The displacement current between the plates of the capacitor
Схема подключения конденсатора и торроидальной катушки для исследования токов смещения
Fig.2. Connection diagram capacitor C1 and a toroidal coil L1
The meaning of the displacement current reflects the figure 1, which shows a two plate capacitor with radius \(r_0\), through which flows the time-varying current \(i\), and the bias current is only generated between them, since before and after the condenser flows normal conduction current, which, through the dielectric to take place can not by definition. Then, between plates and an alternating electric field \(\vec E\), which, according to Maxwell, produces a magnetic field \(\vec B\). If you want the field to place the inductor so that it captures the magnetic lines of force, then there will be induced EMF of self-induction, which, in turn, can be spent on active load.
All this is schematically shown in figure 2, where the plates of the capacitor C1 through the switch SW1 is connected to the voltage source B1. Between the plates of C1 is a toroidal coil L1 is connected to the resistor R1. With the closure of the key in the condenser there is a bias current, which will create a magnetic field in the coil and the current in the load (R1). From this initial diagram, we will make a start in our further considerations.
Maxwell's Equations
These equations have lasted over 100 years and, to this day, quite well describe many processes in electrical engineering [5]. Of course, during this time, researchers have accumulated much data that no longer fit into these formulas, but we'll talk about that another time. Now we will be interested in some of their features, applied to our problem. It is notable that in these equations there is no time like the process, and this means that the energy ratios between their right and left parts are completely absent. To calculate the balance of energies and power with them just will not work, have to work hard than we do in the future and will do. On the other hand, these formulas are not connected with the law of conservation of energy that opens the doors for seekers of free energy.
Another feature of these equations is the support transverse and the complete absence of longitudinal waves. Although, in our opinion, it is the latter carry the potential of one condenser plate to the other and is responsible for the distribution of electric field along the conductor. The name "displacement current" — speaks directly about it. But since in our calculations method of energy transfer is not a fundamental, to focus on this we will not.
We will start with two equations, which is also called the law of ampere-Maxwell [6], and follow the path "from General to private", as it is practiced in all of radio engineering Universities in the derivation of the engineering formulas. However, consider these equations we are not quite conventional point of view. Completely they look like: \[ \mathbf{rot}\, \mathbf {H} = \mathbf {j} +{\frac {\partial \mathbf {D} }{\partial t}} \qquad (1.1)\] \[ \oint \limits _{\ell}\mathbf {H}\, \mathbf {dl} = \int \limits _{S}\mathbf {j}\, \mathbf {dS} +\int \limits _{S}{\frac {\partial \mathbf {D} }{\partial t}}\, \mathbf {dS} \qquad (1.2)\]
In fact, it's the same equation, but written in differential (1.1) and the integral (1.2) form. Despite the complexity of the record, their meaning is quite simple: an electric current, which is described in the right side of the equation, produces a magnetic field, modestly located to the left of this formula. It is known that if the problem is to find the direction of the lines of force or geometry fields, then better to use the differential form of the equations, and if — their specific values, then the integral with which we will continue to work.
The deeper meaning of Maxwell's equations
Some researchers dislike Einstein for his contribution to the denial of the theory of the ether, but that he was one of the first who pointed out the method of free energy. Everyone knows his famous formula linking mass and energy, but other equally interesting ways unknown until now. Let's try to explain how to associate of Maxwell and Einstein, and at the same time to discover another method of getting energy!
For this we take the integral form of equation (1.2) and consider its right part. There are only two summands, reflecting the conduction current and the displacement current. With the first shock — he is well studied and described in the literature, turns the motors, lights the bulb and circulates in all industrial networks. He is not interested in us, so in further considerations we will assume that the impulse which will be discussed further, it will be so fast that the conduction current will not have time to appear in sets (reactor) part of the diagram of our devices. Therefore, in the formula leaving only the term with bias current: \[ \oint \limits _{\ell}\mathbf {H}\, \mathbf {dl} = \int \limits _{S}{\frac {\partial \mathbf {D} }{\partial t}}\, \mathbf {dS} \qquad (1.3)\]
From relativity we know that if we move at the speed of light along the electric field lines, it is relative to the observer's magnetic field will be and Vice versa. Moreover, the direction of power lines is also changed to perpendicular to the original. But \(\partial \mathbf {D} / \partial t\) in the formula (1.3) and represents the rate of change of flow of electric induction. On this website we use the SI system of units, but if you look at the entry of this formula in CGS [6], more reflective of reality, then the numerator to add another member of \(c\) is the speed of light: \[ \oint \limits _{\ell}\mathbf {H}\, \mathbf {dl} = \frac{1}{c} \int \limits _{S}{\frac {\partial \mathbf {D} }{\partial t}}\, \mathbf {dS} \quad [CGS] \qquad (1.4)\] That is, the formula reflects the process of transformation of the electric field in the magnetic, and mind — without any inductors. But to make the result more or less real, you need to make the changes flow very fast. You can even roughly estimate that if the distance between the condenser plates will be 30cm (Fig. 2), the rise time of the pulse (the front), until the conduction current must be of order 1 NS: \(t=0.3/(3\times 10^8)\). That's why pulse technology still has not received the big distribution, but for many inventors it still remains a mystery!
In the next part we will develop the method of calculation of impulse systems on the bias current, a little later — consider private, but more real cases, and then move on to the schematic.
The materials used
  1. Wikipedia. A bias current.
  2. Experiments on the detection and study of the displacement currents in a vacuum.
  3. V. S. Gudymenko, V. I. Piskunov. Experimental verification of the existence of a magnetic field generated by the bias currents of the capacitor.
  4. Zadorozhnyi V. N. Bias current and magnetic field.
  5. Wikipedia. Maxwell's Equations
  6. Wikipedia. The Law Of Ampere-Maxwell