Long line and spark
Authors: Gorchilin V.V., Znamenskiy A.V.
The effect that will be discussed here was noticed quite by accident, when examining single-wire circuit power transmission (Fig. 1), applied to coaxial lines (Fig. 1). He led to an unusual experiment that could be indicative of free energy researchers.
The scheme of the experiment is shown in Figure 1. It consists of a half-bridge G1, in which the upper and lower keys are alternately closed, two T-shaped bridges L1-C2 and L3-C3, a coaxial cable L2 and an active load - an EL1 incandescent lamp. The lamp is placed in the cartridge and glows by about a quarter, but at the moment of unscrewing it from the cartridge, the brightness of its glow increases sharply, and it lights up at full incandescence. At the same time, the readings of the oscilloscope and current meter begin to jump randomly. The oscilloscope eventually shuts down spontaneously. The diagram conventionally shows the FV1 arrester, but here it is necessary to mean exactly the poor contact of the lamp and the cartridge landing pads. Another important point in this circuit is that a Tesla transformer, its secondary multi-turn winding, should be used as L1. If a classical inductance (choke) is used instead, this effect disappears.
Fig.1. Schematic diagram of the initial experiment
The scheme works as follows. The pulse generator, through a driver (not shown in the diagram), forces the output keys of the half-bridge G1 to alternately switch. These keys swing the T-shaped bridge on L1-C2, while C1 here acts as a separating capacitance, the function of which is not to pass the DC component into the further circuit. From the T-bridge, the signal, through the coaxial cable L2, goes to the next bridge L3-C3, and from it - to the EL1 incandescent lamp. There is a bad contact in the partron of this lamp, which replaces the FV1 spark gap. This whole chain works in resonance.
As a result of observations, the following question arose: where does the additional energy come from on the lamp? If we assume that poor contact with the cartridge changes the load resistance and thereby changes the conductivity of the T-bridges, then when it is connected directly to the output of the half-bridge G1, it should also flash brightly, or at least glow at full glow. For this, a lamp with a bad contact was connected to point (A) according to the diagram in Figure 2. As the parameters of the circuit and the generator were not changed, the lamp continued to glow quietly at a quarter of the incandescence. No effect was observed.
The lamp with poor contact was moved to point (B) in the same way (Fig. 2). At this point, the effect reappeared and was about the same as the original one (Fig. 1). In addition, in this case, it was possible to connect an external arrester, which now began to work instead of a bad contact. But the gap in the spark gap was only about 0.2-0.3 mm and was difficult to control.
The following observation may also turn out to be interesting: when the coaxial was turned off (Fig. 3), the effect was also observed, but with a much lower luminescence of the lamp.
Fig.2. Scheme for testing various hypotheses
Fig.3. Possible variant of the scheme with less efficiency
A separate experiment was carried out on the galvanic isolation of the circuit and the 220V network, while the coaxial L2 was grounded. This option did not bring any significant changes. Perhaps, in this case, you need two different earthing, spaced by the length of the cable.
As a generator with a G1 half-bridge circuit, the author used such, the in1-in2 inputs of which were supplied with 100 V power.
The following is an example of a Tesla transformer, but, in principle, you can experiment with any other standard size. Coil L1 is wound on a cardboard frame from kitchen foil 35 mm in diameter. In extreme cases, you can use a 40 mm plastic sewer pipe, but then the coil will give slightly worse results. The frame should be about 11 cm long, it can be longer, but then more ferrite rings will also be needed. Copper wire in varnish insulation 0.25-0.3 mm is wound on this frame until it is completely filled, only 5 mm should be left at the edges to fix the wire. A core made of glued ferrite rings of 28x16x9 2000NM brand is inserted into the frame. Another standard size is also possible, the main thing is that they fit into the tube. For example, the diameter of 32 mm does not fit anymore. The permeability can be taken even higher, for example 3000 NM (it should even be better, in theory). The authors got 13 such rings. The inductance of such a coil is about 8 mH.
The L3 coil is a classic ferrite ring choke. There are no special requirements for it. Capacitor C1 for 600V and capacitors C2-C3 for 2kV.
Tuning is reduced to finding the resonance of the circuit when the load is off (lamp EL1). It can be monitored with an oscilloscope by connecting its probe to the L2 coax input or output. The resonance will be quite sharp, so you need to turn the frequency knob very slowly. Further, by gradually reducing the gap in the arrester (or by screwing the lamp into the socket), to achieve bright flashes. In this case, if the spark gap is completely short-circuited, then the lamp should glow at about a quarter of the incandescence.
It can be said unambiguously that the effect described in this experiment manifests itself only when a "long line" is present in the circuit. It can be either a Tesla transformer, or a coaxial cable, or - all together. Perhaps a long line accumulates charges along its entire length, and then, at some point, transfers them to the load, which causes the effect of a sharp increase in power.
From the above, it follows that the dimensions of the "long line" plays a key role in this effect. The longer its length, the greater the effect itself should be.
The arrester used in the circuit, most likely, must have a certain design, which has yet to be mastered. But it was definitely noticed that the color of the spark in it should be white. If the spark turns yellow or red, the effect disappears.
It is possible that increasing the voltage at the half-bridge should have an even greater effect, since power grows in a quadratic dependence of the charge, and that - in direct proportion to the voltage. But in this case, the voltage at the "hot end" will also increase. L1, which automatically imposes new requirements on the output transistors, on the insulation of conductors and on the safety of experiments.