2023-06-24

COP in an inductive parametric circuit of the second kind.Parametric generators. In the part of this work, the author proposed a method for calculating the efficiency factor parametric chain of the second kind, based on the Stoletov curve. In the second part, we will gradually move from theory to practical developments, we will consider three methods for implementing this technology, and analyze the well-known free energy devices based on them. There will be fewer formulas and more descriptions of real processes. . Introduction to the Problem. From the analysis of parametric installations, starting from one of the first [1], we can conclude that that the cost of changing the initial inductance

*L*, usually fully corresponds to the possible energy increase. The mathematical logic here is as follows. At the first stage, we pump the inductor with current

_{0}*I*, spending energy on it: \[ W_1 = {L_0\, I_1^2 \over 2} \tag{2.1} Then we change the inductance to

_{1}*L*, and remove the following energy from this inductance: \[ W_2 = {L_1\, I_1^2 \over 2} \tag{2.2} Depending on whether the inductance has changed up or down, we get, in theory, a larger or smaller increase: \[ K_{\eta 2} = {W_2 \over W_1} = {L_1 \over L_0} \tag{2.3} Everything would be wonderful and we would extract energy simply from nothing, but nature is designed in such a way that so that such tricky methods of obtaining energy from it do not work, and the cost of changing the inductance would be equal to excess :). We have at our disposal only the curve of the change in inductance from the current in the coil. It's called the Stoletov curve, and can be represented as a simple : \[ L = L_0\, M M = {1 + k_{12} I^2 \over 0 + k_{22} I^2 + k_{23} I^3} + {1 \over \mu_i} \tag{2.4} where:

_{1}*μ*is the initial relative magnetic permeability of the coil core,

_{i}*k*

_{12}*k*

_{22}*k*- coefficients of the Stoletov curve,

_{23}*I*is the current passing through the coil. At its core, this curve shows the hidden processes of reversal of magnetic domains in the ferromagnet of the core, depending on the current flowing in the coil. And if the dependence of the current on time is known, then the curve reveals the velocity and acceleration characteristics of the domain turn. We will use this property further. . But if we rely solely on nature, and we change the inductance of the coil only with the help of the current passing through it, then we get a parametric circuit of the first kind , and it, by its definition, cannot give an energy increase . To obtain excess energy, you will have to apply non-standard solutions, the general meaning of which is to 0 at different stages of the current passing through the coil. Then we can get a parametric chain , where such an increase becomes possible. . Devices with a similar principle of operation can be called 0 . The method of changing the characteristic

*M*in them is subdivided into electrical, semi-mechanical and mechanical. Depending on such a division, it is possible to determine the availability and complexity of preliminary calculations of generators. For example, the mechanical method requires measurements of

*M*on a real working layout, which greatly complicates its calculation. For the electrical method, as a rule, it is sufficient to measure the change in this characteristic in a way represented by and . Let's start with him. . Electrical methods for changing

*M*. The easiest way to get such a circuit is to divide the transient process into two stages: 0 - pumping the coil with current, 0 - picking up the energy pumped into the coil. Moreover, the movement of current at different stages should be divided into different circuits ; this is a necessary but not sufficient condition. At the first stage, the switch

*SW*is closed, and the current, through the resistance

*R*, flows into the coil

*L*. After opening this switch, the current in the coil changes direction, which means that the polarity of the voltage on it becomes opposite and the current, at the second stage, flows through the

*D1*diode into the load resistance

*Rn*. This is similar to flyback converter circuitry [2], but to obtain a parametric chain of the second kind from it, it is necessary to achieve different

*M*, at different stages of the process. For the electric method of changing the inductance of the coil, an external influence is not required, which means that additional energy is not spent on it. . What does another characteristic

*M*mean for a ferromagnet? After all, its magnetic domains are in their places, and their rotation around the axis is carried out in the same way. What then? The time of their rotation changes, which, obviously, depends on the rate of change of the magnetic field, which, in turn, depends on the voltage applied to the coil: the higher it is, the greater the growth rate of this field. There is a clear analogy with , the increase of which is directly proportional to the voltage. The growth of this parameter leads to an energy increase in the presented circuit, however, with the correct change in the

*M*characteristics, at different stages of the transient process. .

*M*for circuit 4a, in which the first stage of the transient process is carried out using a voltage source

*U=9 V*through an active resistance

*R=1 Ohm*. At this stage, the characteristic of the

*M1*coil is used, which has:

*k*. The current in the circuit

_{12}=12.29, k_{22}=2.16, k_{23}=7.07*I*we get the same as in Figure 0. .

*D1*and the load resistance

*Rn=1000 Ohm*, while using the characteristic

*M0*, where:

*k*, which is just slightly different from

_{12}=13.63, k_{22}=3.55, k_{23}=7.81*M1*. The characteristics

*M*were taken from a real coil with an initial inductance

*L*, with a core with

_{0}=0.18 mH*μ*. The current in the second circuit

_{i}=2000*I2*we get the same as in Figure 0. . We have already selected the optimal moment for switching the first stage of the transient process to the second, and it occurs at

*t=39 µs*. Calculating the increase for this case using the formulas (), we get:

*K*. That is,

_{η2}=1.1*Rn*should release 10% more energy than consumed by the power source. At the same time, we should not forget that the efficiency of all elements of the device is not yet taken into account, which here will be determined mainly by losses in the

*SW*key and

*D1*diode. . How to get different characteristics of

*M*. This is the most important point of this technology. In contrast to the parametric change in the inductance, in which it must necessarily be less at the pumping stage and more at the removal stage, here this parameter can change in different directions, at different stages of the transient process. This is reflected in the following graphs, which are built on the basis of previous data . .

*M1*can obviously be obtained by applying to the coil

*L*nvoltage 0 V. But if in the second stage, the time of rotation of the domains of the ferrite core of this coil remains the same as in the first, then as a result we will get a generator of the first kind or a classical flyback converter [2], from which we will not receive an energy increase. The second step is to make the domains rotate faster than the first. This can be done if the resorption time is relatively short, which can be achieved by the correct ratio \, which, by the way, was often mentioned by Dom Smith in his lectures. The repetition of domains in the circuits in Figure 0 can be accelerated by a relatively large load resistance

*Rn*, such that the current decay time was much longer than its rise at the first stage of the transient. . But how to pre-measure different

*M*? This can be done on the stand provided by , and using calculator. To obtain the

*M1*characteristic, you need to apply a relatively low voltage to it, for example, 0 V, and for

*M2*it is relatively high, for example 0 V. As you know, the higher this voltage, the shorter the core saturation time (). It should be taken into account that in a real circuit, for the second stage, it will be necessary to select such a load

*Rn*so that at its beginning it has exactly this voltage . To quickly calculate these values, apparently, we will have to develop another calculator :). You can also do the opposite, create the

*M1*characteristic at a very high voltage, and

*M2*at a relatively low voltage . Compared to the previous case, the efficiency is lower here , but on the other hand, very high voltages and a spark gap can be used, from where - to get high powers in the installation. . For all variants of the

*M*electrical change method, an improved coil and secondary circuit design can be applied . In this case, the coil consists of two windings:

*L*and

_{I}*L*, and the diode load is connected to secondary winding. This allows you to better match the primary and secondary circuits, and connect almost any load, calculated through the ratio of turns between the windings. . Above, we considered examples of electrical methods for changing the characteristic

_{II}*M*, a feature of which is the absence of costs for such a change. But there are other methods: semi-mechanical and mechanical, in which such costs are necessarily present. . Semi-mechanical and mechanical methods for changing

*M*. One of the simplest ways to semi-mechanically change

*M*is to apply an electrical pulse to a ferromagnetic powder, which is the

*Cg*core of the

*L*coil , operating on the coherer principle [9]. An impulse is applied to it using the

*SW*key from the power source, which changes the

*M*characteristic. The primary winding of the

*L*coil is connected to an AC voltage signal generator, and the load is connected to the secondary winding. The circuit has a simple appearance, but setting up the device is complicated by the capriciousness of the coherer itself. Given that the ferromagnetic powder has a low conductivity, a high-voltage pulse must be applied to it. The energy costs of creating an impulse represent additional losses here. . The calculation of the installation with a coherer seems to be rather complicated, because the nature of the change in

*M*after the key is closed is unknown. This process is always random. You can make it more systemic if you add a hammer to the device to automatically shake the coherer, as it was done in the first radio receivers. .

*M*can be created in another semi-mechanical way in a core with a gap, when its width

*d*varies depending on the induction in the coil

*L*. Since the mechanical movement of the gap is slightly delayed compared to the induction, at a certain frequency it is possible to achieve the desired change in

*M*to obtain the maximum gain. disadvantagesuch a design is the difficulty of adjusting the gap and finding the exact frequency of the device [6]. . Apparently, a more compromise variety can be considered a device where a special insert is placed in the gap between the core plates, consisting of an adhesive with ferromagnetic powder [7]. . Mechanical methods include all devices that have a stator and a rotor. As a rule, coils are placed on the stator, and magnets are placed on the rotor . Then the first stage can be attributed to that part of the period in which the magnets are far from the coils, and to the second stage - that part of the period in which the magnets pass near the coils and change them

*M*. It is obvious that the main disadvantage of such devices is the cost of rotor rotation and selection of the start time of the second stage. . In theory, such a setting can also be calculated by comparing

*M*for the first and second stages. For the first one we measure the characteristic

*M1*with the magnet retracted, for the second one we measure

*M2*when the magnet is opposite the coil. But there is an unexplored transitional section here, which can introduce an error into the calculations. . Some notable installations. The author in no way imposes his point of view, but nevertheless, this note is about PMG, so a further review of the known designs of free energy generators will be conducted from these positions. . Electric PMG. One of the installations on 0 ferrite rings was presented by Zaev, which has the declared

*COP=2.37*[3]. Generally speaking, there are two ways to act in electric PMGs: apply a short pulse to the coil, or shorten its winding with the same short pulse. Both options are used by free energy researcher Izmael Aviso [4]. The shortening of the coil winding is used by the inventor Chip [5]. . Semi-mechanical PMG. Engineer Andreev developed his own version of a free energy generator based on a powerful E-shaped transformer with a vibrating gap [6]. Declared

*COP=4*. The disadvantage of the device, perhaps, is the rather strong low-frequency rumble from the vibrating iron and the difficulty of setting it up. The generator on approximately the same principle, but with the use of permanent magnets, was built by the inventor INKOMP [7]. Permanent magnets in such systems shift the operating point of saturation of the core, changing its properties, which is sometimes required for proper operation. Generally speaking, permanent magnets can be used in tuning such devices. . Some researchers propose to make special inserts into the magnetic core [8], similar to the coherer system [9], but with a binder. Researcher Inogda proposes to reproduce his generator on a conventional network transformer with such an insert [8]. . There is an assumption that the so-called "eternal flashlights" work precisely on this principle , where the excess energy is enough not only to light the LEDs, but also to self-power the circuit [10]. The authors themselves claim that the ferrite in their devices is destroyed over time. This confirms our assumption. . In 0, John Bedini presented his invention - an electric generator called "energizer", which is a rotating wheel with permanent magnets located on it [11]. The

*M*change occurs in the coils when the magnets approach them. The maximum

*COP*of this installation, according to independent studies, is slightly more than two [12]. . In the Adams generator [13], the increase in efficiency is manifested in the output winding when the magnet passes next to it, while completely changing the

*M*characteristic. It is at this moment that the energy is removed, which is approximately 0.7% of the time from the total turnover period. The rest of the time, energy is accumulated at the initial

*M*. The driver coils in this device are designed to keep the rotor with magnets spinning. According to the description of the device, its

*COP*reaches 0 units. The device from LeoMAX works with some modifications [14]. . At one of the most famous inventors of free energy, Tariel Kapanadze, the installation worked on the principle of demagnetization of a ferromagnetic core , thereby changing the characteristic

*M*. Moreover, his first mechanical installations changed this parameter by rotating the stator, just as it was implemented by Bedini and Adams. Below is part of an interview with this inventor: - Mr. Kapanadze, and yet, what is in these pipes, into which a spark beats? Are there rare earth or radioactive elements in there?

- There is nothing difficult there. These are pipes - magnetic separators from machine tools, inside which are coils of copper wire. And that's it!. His patent application is presented in [15].

*COP*for this system is obviously greater than one, but it is not possible to estimate its exact value, because all installation demos showed self-recording. . There is information that, on this principle, installations are made on a conventional relay, the contacts of which connect and disconnect the power source to its coil: open when voltage is applied to it, and close when it is not present. There is a slight delay between the closing and opening of the relay contacts, at these moments the process we need takes place. The relay contacts themselves are regulated in a special way [16]. The disadvantage of this approach may be the rapid wear of the relay contacts, the complexity of their adjustment and the large losses for remagnetization of the iron of its core. . As noted earlier, a short pulse can be applied to the coil, or the winding itself can be shorted at certain points in time. An interesting way to shorten the rotating windings of the generator was presented by the researcher Igor Moroz in the video [17]. . Conclusions. In this work, the possibility of obtaining excess energy from a ferromagnetic material and an inductor was shown, by obtaining difference characteristics

*M*at different stages of the transient process. Here, a method for such an impact was proposed, a technique for measuring

*M*and calculating the PMG of the second kind. More generally, it's another technology to increase , based on the speed and acceleration characteristics of the reversal of magnetic domains. . Based on the data obtained, some well-known installations from the inventors of free energy were analyzed, which once again confirmed the correctness of our calculations and the path we have chosen. . Based on the results of this work, it is planned to produce a specialized calculator that will more clearly demonstrate the capabilities of this technology. . . . .