Research website of Vyacheslav Gorchilin
2024-02-17
All articles/Electronic circuits
High-voltage pulse generator on one bipolar transistor
The topic of high-voltage pulse generators has been of concern to more than one generation of free energy seekers. Researchers are well aware that compressing a pulse in time and at the same time stretching it in amplitude is not so simple. But this is exactly what is required to obtain some associated effects. Here we will present another version of this technology, which allows us to assemble and configure a device capable of generating unipolar pulses from 900 to 3000 V, and a width from 80 to 600 ns. It consists of inexpensive and commonly available parts and is assembled in one evening. Unlike the previous circuit, which operated on a mosfet transistor, this circuit design will be designed for a composite bipolar transistor. Also, a ferromagnetic positive feedback ring made from new meta materials will be used here.
Fig.1. Schematic diagram of a high-voltage pulse generator
Fig.2. Schematic diagram of a high-voltage pulse generator with external control
Tr1 is drawn literally in the diagram: the primary winding is one turn, the secondary is two turns around the ring. One turn of the primary winding is a wire passed through a ring. The beginning of these windings is shown in the diagrams with a dot, which is important not to confuse during assembly. This transformer sets the basic parameters of the entire device and needs to be given special attention.
The operation of the circuit is quite simple. Circuit design, transformer Tr1 creates positive feedback for transistor VT1 through capacitance C2. Resistors R1 and R2 create a bias at the base of this transistor, and also, together with C2, form a time delay between pulses. This allows you to regulate their frequency using R1, while keeping the parameters of the pulses themselves unchanged. Chokes L1 and L2 regulate the shape of the output pulse, and under external loads they must be turned off by closing the contacts of switches SW1 and SW2.
External load
Figure 1 shows the basic diagram of the device. It is capable of working both independently, if you close the pins X1 and X2 (Fig. 3a), and with an external load, if you connect it to these pins (Fig. 3b, 3c). The main type of external load is a pulse transformer, which is capable of increasing the output amplitude of the entire device. So, for example, the transformer described in detail here, and connected to pins X1 and X2 (Fig. 3c), can produce unipolar pulses with an amplitude of 1.5-3 kV on its secondary winding, depending on the supply voltage of the circuit. An oscillogram of the process with such a transformer is shown in photo 5.
Fig.3. Connection diagrams for a high-voltage pulse generator
Such a pulse transformer can be assembled based on the following considerations. The wire of the primary and secondary windings must be at least 2 mm away from the core on which they are wound. More is better. Also, there must be a gap between these windings: primary and secondary. Making such a transformer correctly is an entire art, but this gives a certain scope for creativity to our respected readers. A transformer wound in the classical way will not work here.
Load in the form of a high-voltage transformer is distinguished by the appearance of packs of quasi-sinusoidal oscillations on its secondary high-voltage winding, because such a winding has a large intrinsic capacitance. An oscillogram of the process with a high-voltage transformer is shown in photo 6. A device with such a transformer is capable of delivering 6 kV at 12 V supply, and 12-15 kV at 25-30 V supply. At the same time, even with the longest spark (5-6 mm), the generator consumes about 3 W, and its elements do not heat up, which indicates good operating efficiency. This type of circuit and external load can be recommended for high-voltage conversion devices.
Below are oscillograms of some generator processes. Up - voltage ppower circuit.
Fig.4. Up=12V, measurement on closed terminals X1-X2 (Fig. 3a)
Fig.5. Up=25V, measurement on the secondary winding THV (Fig. 3c)
Fig.6. Up=25V, the probe lies next to the HV transformer
If you connect the Tesla transformer inductor to terminals X1-X2, and its lower end to ground, then such a system will also work. True, in this case, it is best used with a ferromagnetic core. With certain ratios between the dimensions of the transformer and the position of the core, it is possible to achieve a strong glow from a fluorescent lamp located next to the hot end of the secondary. But since this mode is unstable, we cannot recommend it for permanent use.
It is also interesting that the TDKS transformer is also suitable as an external load, although you will have to find suitable windings on it. But in this case, TDKS can operate using only a few watts of power from the power source.
External generator control
This version of the circuit is shown in Figure 2; it allows you to supply rectangular pulses from the external control generator GG1, and synchronize them with the frequency and phase of our device. An external generator is connected to inputs X3 and X4 (Fig. 3d), while the contacts of switch SW3 must be open. If the contacts of this switch are closed, then our device will no longer be controlled externally and will switch to the basic mode according to scheme 1.
External control is carried out using mosfet transistor VT2, the gate of which is supplied with rectangular control pulses from an external low-frequency generator. Suppressor D1 is required in this case; it protects both the transistor itself and the external generator from possible high-voltage surges in the circuit. The circuit can use external control with pulses with an amplitude of 5 (TTL outputs) to 12 volts, which is provided by a relatively light transistor VT2 with a special gate.
It is very important that the frequency of the external oscillator and the pulse repetition frequency of the circuit approximately coincide. Then VT2 will synchronize these pulses with phase accuracy. This can be achieved by temporarily short-circuiting the drain-source VT2 (closing the contacts of SW3), and using resistance R1 to set the frequency to approximately coincide with the frequency of the external generator. After unwinding, we should receive synchronized high-voltage pulses, the frequency of which can be adjusted within certain limits by an external generator (usually no more than 25-35%).
Element base
Transformer Tr1 is the heart of the entire device; all the main characteristics depend on it. In early versions of such a generator, a ferrite ring was used. Ferrite gave good characteristics, but the generator only worked at low loads. If you use the same ring in this circuit, then with it the generator will not produce the declared amplitudes of the output signal (several times less). Therefore, in the circuit design presented here, a nanocrystalline ring with dimensions of 10*14*4.5 mm is used. This material has better performance and, at the same time, greater relative permeability. You can use other ring sizes, but it is important to remember that the smaller its cross-section, the faster it will saturate, and the better the time characteristics of the device will be.
The following is a list of other electronic parts and their possible replacements (in parentheses):
  • VT1 - composite pulse high-voltage transistor BU808DFI, with protective diodes;
  • VT2 (only for circuit 2) - low-voltage mosfet transistor IRLZ44NPBF (IRLZ34NPBF, IRLR3105TRPBF);
  • L1, L2 - 22 µH chokes, for example such;
  • C1, C2 - capacitors with good high-frequency characteristics, for a voltage of at least 100 V, for example polyester;
  • R1, R2 are resistors designed for a power of at least 0.5 W (R2 can be made up of two series-connected resistors of 0.25 W each);
  • SW1-SW3 - any switches, for example such;
  • D1-D3 - 400 V suppressors - P6KE400CA;
  • D4 (only for circuit 2) - 51 V suppressor - P6KE51A.
Installation and configuration
The device can be assembled on a breadboard. It is advisable to place all elements of the circuit as close to each other as possible, because long conductors degrade the performance of the device.
It is advisable to make transistor VT1 remote, on a connector, so that it can be quickly changed. We can also recommend selecting a transistor from a batch to achieve the best result in terms of output signal amplitude. All transistors of the circuit do not need to be placed on the radiator.
Connect the assembled device and the OSC oscilloscope to it as shown in Figure 3a (jumper X1 and X2). The contacts of switches SW1 and SW2 should be open, and contact SW3 should be closed (if circuit 2 is configured). Then apply 12 volts of power to the circuit. If the circuit is assembled correctly, it will start working immediately. If this does not happen, then check the connection of the Tr1 windings: a lot depends on the correctness of their connection. The beginning of the windings of this transformer are indicated in the diagram with black circles (Fig. 1,2).
Next, the switching of SW1 and SW2 can be manipulated to produce the desired high voltage pulse. These switches can also be used to adjust the output pulse if an external load is connected.
Printed circuit board
Below is a professional printed circuit board layout for the option according to the diagram in Figure 2, taking into account all the necessary installation requirements. Transformer Tr1 is connected to pins XT1-XT3 located on the board.
Production version: PCB (open)
The production option provides a set of documentation for manufacturing a printed circuit board in production: GERBER file for PCB, BOM file of the specification of components and a schematic diagram showing the values of the elements. All this allows you to immediately order a PCB, for example, here, and then quickly assemble it.
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