Another mystery of the Tesla transformer
In 1975 Emily Avramenko conducted a series of experiments , which led him to open a permanent electrostatic component of the "hot" end of the Tesla transformer (TT), "cold" current end of which is grounded. This phenomenon is still not explained by classical physics. In this work we will repeat this experience, then we slightly modify the scheme and get another one absolutely inexplicable classic effect, in fact, opposite in sign to the original. Because of the new effects, the whole experiment can be attributed to the class of atmospheric electricity, but the right will open a new class of phenomena dedicated to radiant processes.
The scheme of Avramenko experiment is shown in Fig. 1, which uses the classical scheme of excitation of the TT with the high-voltage generator TB1, the discharger FV1 and inductor (primary coil L1). As TB1 author used ready unit powered from 2.5 V (two AA batteries) and output voltage of up to 25kV, but goes with any other oscillator with similar characteristics. The discharger can also be used any of air, with the adjustment of the length of the breakdown period.
Tesla transformer (L1) consists of primary and secondary windings. Primary consists of 10 turns of copper wire 5mm2wound in the lower part of the transformer. The winding wire of the windings is in the clockwise direction. The secondary winding of the lower end is connected to ground, and the upper to the antenna AN1, which is a cut exposed wire length 20cm. The data of the coil are shown below.
- Inductance, mH — 12.5
- The number of turns — 434
- Wire length, m — 273
- Length of winding, mm — 510
- The reel diameter, mm — 200
- Conductor diameter, mm 1.1
For the experiment we will also need indicators of static electricity and private capacity. The first indicator is going according to the scheme 1a, and includes a capacitor C2, a resistor R2 and a millivolt DC voltage V2. The indicator is connected to the antenna AN2, representing pigtail 20cm, and grounding. The second indicator (Fig. 1b) is a classic electroscope (ES2 scheme). Secluded capacity Cp is a ball or toroid comisariada on the leg, which can be used to transfer charge from the CTS to the indicators. Capacity Cp is 5..8pf, and to count it here.
Experience No. 1
In it, by adjusting the discharge gap FV1, achieve a sustainable spark. Then, with a solitary capacity Cp touch the hot end of the TT and moving the electrostatic charge on one of the indicators — just touching the antenna AN2. If this is the electroscope (ES2), he responds to the received charge spreads its petals (Fig. 1b). Unfortunately, the polarity of the resulting charge cannot be obtained; therefore (Fig. 1a), we apply another indicator (Fig. 1a). It millivoltmeter V2 by far, we will show a positive value of voltage on the capacitor C2, which is fully consistent with the results of Avramenko .
Fig.1. The experimental setup Avramenko. The transfer of electrostatic charge from the TT to the indicator by using a solitary capacity
If you change the conclusions of the inductor L1 is reversed, the magnitude of the transferred charge can change in either direction, which also corresponds to the experiments of Avramenko. Quantitative assessment of permanent electrostatic component, we will not give, because is more important the qualitative difference of the results when changing the experimental conditions. What we will do in the following experiment, the results of which baffle even experienced electrical engineers.
Experience No. 2
Here we completely disconnect the generator and the inductor in the TT, but will continue to carry the electrostatic charge on the indicator (Fig. 2a). In this case, we find that, first, an electrostatic charge is (though smaller than in experiment 1), and second, the polarity is negative, which is opposite to the results of the previous experiment.
Fig.2. An electrostatic charge when disconnected the generator and its fixation with the help of various indicators and instruments
If the indicator is to make the scheme 2b, then when you touch it Cp, VD1 led will flash, and the larger the capacitance Cp, the brighter. The diode bridge VB1 of this indicator to make the best of the fast diodes with low capacitance, for example, 1N4148.
In order to exclude the influence of interference, the lab was turned off all the electronics, but the value of the portable sarada has not changed. Then, with the purpose of detection, was connected to digital oscilloscope schemes 2c and 2d, but even at maximum sensitivity any hesitation could not be detected. We used two types of probes: the usual low and high voltage, with a huge input impedance.
Unfortunately, other coils, a similar effect, the author could not be obtained, so original — so much detail has been described above. Was tested the coils with fewer turns, the inductance and wire diameter — all of them have failed. Also, they are connected in series with the secondary winding L1, but the effect only reduced.
If parallel to the secondary winding L1 mounted variable capacitor, the limits of its adjustment (15-300pf) the result did not change: on the hot end all the CT also there was a formation of electrostatic charge. But adding in there a solitary container in the form of a ball or a torus reduced effect.
Another interesting result was obtained when disconnecting the ground from the cold end of the TT. The negative electrostatic charge on the hot end was still formed, and on a cold — started recorded a positive electrostatic charge, however smaller.
In their work  Avramenko tried to explain his results with relativistic effects and based on the Fermi levels. In part, this can be done and the ion wind that is always present in this formulation of experience and will always give the positive charge on the remote container (experiment No. 1). But even if we assume that the coil of the TT in the second experiment, excited yet unknown to us waves, then it is absolutely impossible, from the point of view of classical electrical engineering, is the explanation of the appearance of opposite polarity electrostatic charge on the hot end of the transformer. Some considerations can give the relatively new science of spintronics , which assumes a variety of spin of an electron, which allows to draw conclusions about the charge separation in the TT, but it can not explain the appearance of a constant component on his findings. Perhaps some clarification can be obtained from the works of N. Tesla, but in this case, the official science will require recognition of the radiant energy.