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Some features of the behavior of a charged high voltage capacitor
Electrostatics is a well — studied science and all its associated experiences, the idea is good enough to explain. However, presented in this article, the experiments cannot be unambiguously interpreted with the help of this theory. Most likely, we are talking about atmospheric electricity, which includes not only the electric field of the atmosphere, but also the charge of the Earth. To use both of them we will move gradually, starting with the simplest experiments.
To conduct them, we need high-voltage unit for charging the capacitor C1 (Fig. 1a). It consists of two AA batteries connected in series (GB1), the SB1, high voltage diode VD1 and the finished block BV1, that is powered by 3 volts, and the output of 20-25 kV. As BV1, the author used this unit. The VD1 diode can be any high voltage, calculated for a voltage of 30 kV or more. You can connect several of these sequentially. Although BV1 has the output already rectified voltage and even the capacitor, but the internal circuit will discharge it pretty quickly when power is removed. Therefore, VD1 is required.
The whole chain is designed to charge the capacitor C1 through a short time (1-2 seconds) pressing the button SB1. In all experiments we will assume that this capacitor is already charged in this way, and because we will not continue to draw this block. Design and make C1 need to pay special attention, because this will depend on the results of future experiments. You must use ceramic capacitor FGT or the like, at 20 kV and with a capacity of 8-15 nF. At lower voltages on C1 and other designs of this condenser, the experiments may not produce the desired result.
Схема опыта с заряженным высоковольтным конденсатором
Fig.1. The experimental setup with a charged high voltage capacitor
BV1 is best to be powered by batteries or accumulators, as shown in the diagram. Stationary power supply, the next breakdown of the arrester may fail, that it has been repeatedly proven.
Experience No. 1
Charge C1 and lay next to him, the capacitor C2 so that their axes are parallel (Fig. 1b). After some time on C2 will appear charge, which can be controlled by closing its covers. When this occurs, a spark breakdown. C1 and C2 should be similar in design but smaller in capacity on the order.
Experience No. 2
Absolutely wonderful experiment we can conduct, if the plates of a charged capacitor C1, in turn, bring the ground wire (Fig. 1c). Between the electrode and the ground wire we can observe the spark, and if all the time to bring this wire to only one of electrodes, the sparks will not need serialization.
If the breaking of the ground wire to turn on the diode VD2 (Fig. 1d-1e), depending on the polarity of the enable we will see a spark only when approaching one of electrodes: according to the diagram in figure (1d) the spark will be only with a negative electrode, according to the scheme (1e) — positive. In this case, the sequence of connections still to be observed.
Experience No. 3
We came to the direct use of atmospheric electricity in its broadest sense. For this negatively charged plate of capacitor C1 is connected to the antenna AN1, and a positively charged — to the ground via discharger FV1. The gap between the electrodes of the spark gap you are required to pick up, but typically it is 0.3-0.6 mm. In this interval we can observe periodic discharges, and the number may be 100 or more times.
The antenna AN1 in this experiment is a piece of wire with a length of 2-3 meters, which should be placed away from conductive objects. It is seen that the greater length (area) is the antenna is, the more likely categories and that their will be more. If near the antenna (2-3 cm) to accommodate the conductor or solid piece of metal, when the discharge of the antenna wire to it will be attracted to, and after a second or two to return to its original position (Fig. 1g). This fact can speak about the same effect pulling to the antenna of the atmospheric charges.
Of course, after some time the charge decrease and C1. It is noticed that this scheme completely stops working when the voltage across C1 at least 4-5 kV.
If C1 positioning the opposite — the positive electrode to the antenna, there has been only a small number of bits, which may indicate the positive charge of the atmosphere and negative Earth. The saturation of the free electrons of the atmosphere around the antenna strengthens or weakens the effect, depending on the polarity of the capacitor C1.
Interestingly, the energy gain in such systems can be increased significantly by applying as C1 parametric capacity. Then the gain can be calculated by the formula of partial cycles PCCIE or, if you know the coefficients of the parametric curve, in a specialized calculator.