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Pulse method for increasing power at resistive load
Pulse technology is still a mystery to many researchers of free energy. A little light on it needs to shed the experiment presented in this article. If you pass a brief sense of pulse technology, so that the conductor having running capacity, at the time of the supply voltage on it works like a capacitor, the wave which is spread along its axis. Therefore, around the conductor, a magnetic field with its energy, which is proportional to the square of the slew rate of the pulse. This energy can be disposed of in the load, which is what we will do in this experiment.
In fact, to only the pulse component is very difficult, because there is no ideal key, especially if, as such, applies the discharger. So in real life we have a mixture of energies from the displacement current and conduction current, which certainly contributes to the approximation of the total efficiency of the unit. But to achieve some gain here.
The experimental setup is depicted in the following figure. It presents: a power transformer TL1; decoupling choke L1; high-voltage transformer TH1, diode VD1 and capacitor C1; the discharger FV1 and lamp EL1.
Схема эксперимента. Импульсный метод повышения мощности на активной нагрузке
TL1 transformer converts the mains voltage to "incandescent" — sufficient for a small heating spiral filament lamp EL1. This is the first circuit which is formed by a secondary winding TL1, lamp EL1 and reactor L1. She is responsible for the flow of electric charges in the lamp filament (current).
The purpose of the inductor L1 double. First, it protects the transformer TL1 from sudden changes in voltage, and secondly, does not allow fast-changing currents to dissipate outside spiral lamp EL1. To ensure the second property, its internal capacitance must be minimized. For the experiments is quite suitable coil wound on a plastic (preferably paper) frame diameter 35-50mm, copper wire in the varnish insulation 0.5-0.8 mm and a winding length of 20-35cm.
The second circuit appears periodically when the gap arrester FV1 breaks and the capacitor C1 begins to discharge to the load. But for the first time, when the rapid increase of the potential on the filament of the lamp, around a relatively large magnetic field, which is then recycled into energy to run hot. When the buildup of potential is completed, starts the discharge of the capacitor on the filament with the conduction current. The slew rate of the pulse and the ratio of these determine the efficiency of the entire system.
Thus, the filament of the lamp EL1 performs two functions: it creates a pulse effect with the bias current and utilizes the resulting energy in the form of his heat. If you look at Fig. 7a, the filament does is it L1 and R1 simultaneously, and the discharger FV1 is the key SW1.
As a result of experiments, it was found that the optimal capacitance of the capacitor C1 should be approximately equal to the following formula: \[ R = \sqrt{L \over C_1} \] where: \(R\) — the resistance of the filament lamp EL1, \(L\) is the inductance of the filament of this lamp, \(C_1\) is the capacitance of the capacitor C1. In other words, the load resistance must match the characteristic impedance formed by the inductance of the filament and the capacitor C1. If this capacitor is removed or to remove the diode VD1, a high-voltage dressing up to put on the discharger directly, it will be no effect. This fact suggests that the load is not the usual addition of power from two sources, but a completely different effect.
Continuing the theme of the lamp EL1 it should be noted that the desired effect it is created by the filament, which is an albeit small, but still the inductance. Therefore, for the experiments best suited long halogen bulb with a long spiral. Lamp power and voltage at the secondary winding of the transformer TL1 is necessary to choose such that when the first circuit (second off) the lamp filament was a little tense.
Similarly, when the first circuit is disabled and the second enabled, you need to achieve the same effect: to the thread of the lamp was a little tense. The combination of these parameters can give the maximum effect, but you will need to pick up a high-voltage transformer TH1: its output voltage and power. From experience, this voltage can be in the range of 3-20 kV, and its power can be regulated by the series-connected capacitance in the network winding. Very well suited neon transformer for 3-10 kV, and more powerful designs — transformer from microwave ovens.
Diode VD1 can also be rented from a microwave oven, but you can use any other high-voltage, the voltage twice the output voltage of the transformer TH1. Well-suited Soviet diodes КЦ106. Capacitor C1 should have a high value of reactive power and the maximum voltage at least twice the output of TH1. Example — Soviet capacitors KVI-3.
Many, if not most importantly, attention should be paid to the design of the arrester FV1. Depends on the slew rate capacity, and, therefore, raise. Nikola Tesla, for example, was devoted to gaps many of its patents. Of course, make it a mercury variant is unlikely to succeed, but the use of powerful permanent magnets in the gap between the electrodes is highly desirable. They contribute to a more rapid breaking of the circuit, and therefore, less current flow conduction. Also, you can use several of arresters connected in series. The gap between the electrodes should be adjustable.
Just above described independent adjustment of the two circuits schema: in both cases, the filament lamp should be a little reddish. While the inclusion of two circuits, the lamp should flicker two or three times brighter. The author of each chain separately consumes 15W, and while the inclusion — 25W, the lamp flared up in 2.5-3 times brighter than when connected only one chain. It is necessary to clarify that under the brightness means the thermal power of which was controlled by the author at the heating temperature. With the improvement of the parameters of the scheme, especially in terms of the characteristics of the arresters, the ratio of the balance of power may be even greater.
Also, it is very important to choose the optimal gap between the electrodes of the arrester. The noise from his work at the hearing should be uniform, without jerks and groans. Optimum will be visible visually for maximum glow lamp.